Hot water as an effective post harvest disinfestant for the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) on mango
Oriental fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important quarantine pest affecting a wide variety of fruits and vegetables and the loss in mango due to fruit fly is about 25 percent. For exports of mango, the treatments for the management of OFF should ensure 99.99683% control (by probit 9 standards). Heat treatment of infested fruits is known to ensure this standard. However, an optimum temperature-time regimen needs to be worked out for different varieties under Indian conditions. To achieve this, a series of studies was conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore, India (12058N; 77035E) from 2003 to 2008. The results revealed that, eggs showed total mortality at temperature-time regimes of 450C- 60 min and 480C- 45min & 60 min. The first instar maggot was completely susceptible only at 48oC-60 min. The second instar maggots succumbed to 100% mortality at 450C & 480C for 45min & 60min. Whereas, third instar recorded 100% mortality at 48oC for 45 and 60 minutes. These results were further supported by regression analysis between temperature and duration of exposure. Further, the temperature regimen 48oC 60 minutes was validated on different varieties viz., Alphonso, Banganapalli, Neelum and Totapuri at different location under farmers conditions yielded cent per cent disinfestations of OFF on mango. Organo-leptic tests showed that the fruit quality in terms of colour at ripening and taste was not affected.
Bactrocera dorsalis, disinfestation; fruit fly; hot water; mango
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